#### TITLE

The Holochronous Universe: time to shed some light on the Dark Sector?

#### ABSTRACT

We describe a novel interpretation of the time dimension in General Relativity: the Holochronous Principle, and show that the application of this principle in standard cosmological situations is able fully to account for the effects currently attributed to Dark Matter in observational phenomena such as galactic rotation curves and gravitational lensing.

We re-evaluate the role of the Friedman equations in defining a time varying spacetime metric, and in their place postulate a model that is based on the ‘shrinkage’ of baryons in a gravitational field to account for the dynamical behaviour of the cosmic scale factor. We show that integrating the Holochronous Principle into this model gives rise to a solution that takes the form of a resonant universe, in which the resultant damped oscillations can account for the observed accelerating expansion rate of the universe, to a greater level of precision than the standard \(\Lambda\)CDM model. The Holochronous model obviates the need for Dark Energy in the form of a cosmological constant, \(\Lambda\), and also resolves other issues associated with the \(\Lambda\)CDM model, including the \(\Omega=1\) flatness problem.

#### FULL TEXT

http://vixra.org/abs/1606.0258

#### Title

### Anomalous photon noise levels predicted for CMB measurements made by the Planck satellite mission

#### Abstract

A fundamental assumption inherent in the standard ΛCDM Hot Big Bang (HBB) model is that photons lose energy as they are redshifted due to the expansion of the universe. We show that for the Quasi-Static Universe (QSU) model, in which photon energy is an invariant in the cosmological reference frame, the photon number density in the universe today is a factor of approximately 1600 less than in the standard model. We examine some of the consequences for a number of processes that occur during the thermal history of the early universe, including primordial nucleosynthesis, the formation of neutral hydrogen (recombination), and the evolution of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. We show that the QSU model predicts that the measured CMB photon noise level will be a factor of \(\sim\)40 higher than the level that would be observed assuming the standard HBB model. The CMB data that will be collected by the recently launched Planck satellite mission provides an ideal opportunity to test the validity of this prediction.

#### Full Text

http://arxiv.org/pdf/0905.3579

#### Title

### Predicted behaviour of a universe with a low photon-baryon ratio

#### Abstract

A fundamental assumption inherent in the standard \(\Lambda\)CDM Hot Big Bang (HBB) model is that matter-antimatter annihilations shortly after the birth of the universe give rise to a vast excess of photons over baryons. Alternative cosmological models imply a much lower photon-baryon ratio, \(\eta_\gamma\). We examine some of the consequences of \(\eta_\gamma\simeq1\) for a number of cosmological processes, within the framework of Machian General Relativity, in which photon energy is an invariant in the cosmological reference frame.

#### Full Text

http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/10.1063/1.3460189

**Title**

**Machian General Relativity: a possible solution to the Dark Energy problem, and a replacement for Big Bang cosmology**

**Abstract**

Observations of an apparent acceleration in the expansion rate of the universe, derived from measurements of high-redshift supernovae, have been used to support the hypothesis that the universe is permeated by some form of dark energy. We show that an alternative cosmological model, based on a linearly expanding universe with \(\Omega=1\), can fully account for these observations. This model is also able to resolve the other problems associated with the standard Big Bang model. A scale-invariant form of the field equations of General Relativity is postulated, based on the replacement of the Newtonian gravitational constant by an formulation based explicitly on Mach’s principle. We derive the resulting dynamical equations, and show that their solutions describe a linearly expanding universe. Potential problems with non-zero divergencies in the modified field equations are shown to be resolved by adopting a radically different definition of time, in which the unit of time is a function of the scale-factor. We observe that the effects of the modified field equations are broadly equivalent to a Newtonian gravitational constant that varies both in time and in space, and show that this is also equivalent to Varying Speed of Light (VSL) theories using a standard definition of time. Some of the implications of this observation are discussed in relation to Black Holes, Planck scale phenomena, and the ultimate fate of the Universe.

**Full Text**

http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0106007v2

**Title**

**Scale invariant gravity and the quasi-static universe**

**Abstract**

We highlight the fact that the lack of scale invariance in the gravitational field equations of General Relativity results from the underlying assumption that the appropriate scale for the gravitational force should be linked to the atomic scale. We show that many of the problems associated with cosmology and quantum gravity follow directly from this assumption. An alternative scale invariant paradigm is proposed, in which the appropriate scale for General Relativity takes the Universe as its baseline, and the gravitational force does not have any fixed relationship to forces that apply on the atomic scale. It is shown that this gives rise to a quasi-static universe, and that the predicted behaviour of this model can resolve most of the problems associated with the standard Big Bang model. The replacement of Newton’s gravitational constant in the quasi-static model by a scale-dependent re-normalisation factor is also able to account for a number of astronomical observations that would otherwise require ad-hoc explanations. Some of the implications of scale invariant gravity for Planck scale physics, quantum cosmology, and the nature of time are discussed.

**Full Text**

http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0203065v2

**Title**

**Reassessment of the GZK cutoff in the spectrum of UHE cosmic rays in a universe with low photon-baryon ratio**

**Abstract**

A prediction of standard Big Bang cosmology is that the observed UHECR (ultra-high-energy cosmic rays) spectrum will exhibit a cutoff at the GKZ limit, resulting from interaction with the photons that constitute the cosmic microwave background. We show that for the Quasi-Static Universe (QSU) model, in which photon energy is an invariant in the cosmological reference frame, the photon number density in the universe today is a factor of \(10^9\) less than in the standard model. As a consequence, the mean free path of UHECRs will exceed the horizon distance of the universe, rendering it essentially transparent to UHECRs. The QSU model therefore predicts that no cutoff will be observed in the UHECR spectrum.

**Full Text**

http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0309803v1.pdf